The subject of this case study is a World Bank-funded performance-based financing (PBF) program implemented by the Government of Nigeria (GoN), called the Nigeria States Health Investment Project. Nigeria provides an interesting case, as the most populous country in Africa continues to face staggering maternal and child mortality rates. The World Bank team is conducting an impact evolution of the PBF program that compares outcomes achieved at PBF facilities to those achieved at facilities with simple cash inputs. The GoN has prioritized making adjustments based on outcomes of the evaluation to push facilities to continually improve. Data for this case study were gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with project leaders.